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Indeed, prostitution and gambling flourished until World War I, when the Department of the Army pressured El Paso authorities to crack down on vice (thus benefitting vice in neighboring Ciudad Juárez). General Pershing's punitive expedition camp near the border, El Paso, Texas (postcard, circa 1916): Franklin Mountains, left-to-right (i.e., south-to-north) are: Ranger Peak, Sugarloaf Mountain, and part of South Franklin Mountain In 1909, William Howard Taft and Porfirio Díaz planned a summit in El Paso, Texas, and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, an historic first meeting between a U. president and a Mexican president and also the first time an American president would cross the border into Mexico But tensions rose on both sides of the border, including threats of assassination, so the Texas Rangers, 4,000 U. In 1915 and again in 19 various Mexican revolutionary societies planned, staged, and launched violent attacks against both Texans and their political Mexican opponents in El Paso.With the suppression of the vice trade and in consideration of the city's geographic position, the city continued into developing as a premier manufacturing, transportation, and retail center of the U. This state of affairs eventually led to the vast Plan de San Diego which resulted in the murder of 21 white citizens.After changing hands twice more the El Paso company was set up in 1859 and bought the property, hiring Anson Mills to survey and lay out the town forming the current street plan of downtown El Paso.During the Civil War, a Confederate presence was in the area until it was captured by the Union California Column in 1862.The subsequent reprisals by local militia soon caused an escalation of violence, wherein it is estimated that approximately 300 Mexicans and Mexican-Americans lost their lives.These actions affected almost every resident of the entire lower Rio Grande Valley, resulting in millions of dollars of losses; the end result of the Plan of San Diego was long-standing enmity between the two racial groups.
In the 1870s, a population of 23 non-Hispanic whites and 150 Hispanics was reported. Spanish-language newspapers, theaters, movie houses, and schools were established, many supported by a thriving Mexican refugee middle class.El Paso remained the largest settlement in New Mexico until its cession to the U. in 1848, when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified the border was to run north of El Paso De Norte, then what is now the area around the Ciudad Juárez Cathedral, it became part of the state of Chihuahua.El Paso County was established in March 1850, with San Elizario as the first county seat.However, the villages which consisted of what is now El Paso and the surrounding area remained essentially a self-governed community with both representatives of the Mexican and Texan government negotiating for control until Texas irrevocably took control in 1846.During this interregnum, 1836–1848, Americans nonetheless continued to settle the region.